Lateral pressure exerted on the vessel wall by the circulating blood; also referred to as systemic arterial pressure.
Calculation of blood pressure:
BP = CO x TPR
BP = blood pressure.
CO = cardiac output, volume of blood ejected from the ventricle in one minute.
TPR = total peripheral resistance, sum of the resistance of all peripheral vasculature in the systemic circulation.
Systolic pressure: Peak pressure that occurs in the artery following ventricular systole
Diastolic pressure: The level to which the arterial blood pressure falls during ventricular diastole.
Normal blood pressure is arbitrarily set at 120/80 mm Hg, although variations from this often occur in normal healthy people.
a) Increase cardiac output
b) Decrease cardiac output
a) Increase peripheral resistance
*Chemoreceptor and baroreceptors are located in aortic and carotid bodies. They adjust blood pressure through autonomic nervous system.
b) Decrease peripheral resistance
Age, sleep, gravity, and any other underlying diseases.
Things to prepare for blood pressure measurement:
2. Blood pressure set (Meter, pump, cuff of CORRECT SIZE in relation to the patient)
Good morning, I'm XXX, 3rd year medical student. May I check on your full name and date of birth please?
The doctor had instructed me to measure your blood pressure today (because of your history of hypertension / the symptoms you are having / previous high blood pressure / normal check up / etc...). Have you had your blood pressure measured before? Would you like me to explain how this is done?
Basically, I will fit this cuff around your arm and inflate air into it, then slowly deflate to gain an estimate of your blood pressure from the meter reading. You may experience some temporary discomfort as the cuff may become quite tight. Please do let me know if it becomes too painful to continue.
Before we start, there are several routine questions I would like to ask you...
Locate by following your thumb down to the wrist. lateral to the flexor carpi radialis tendon.
Comment on: rate, rhythm, volume and characteristic.
Located medial to biceps tendon.
It is important to perform palpating method before auscultatory method to:
1. Prevent discomfort from unnecessary high cuff pressure.
2. Avoid auscultatory gap (the sounds disappear just below the systolic pressure and reappear before diastolic pressure, can lead to underestimate of systolic blood pressure)
5 phases sounds will be heard as the cuff is slowy released, which are called the Korotkoff sounds:
NJ Talley, SO Connor, Clinical Examination: A systematic guide to physical diagnosis, 6th Edition, 2010.
Fastbleep © 2019.